Leveraging Secondary Associations

The third and final way to build brand equity is to “borrow” it by linking the brand to other in-formation in memory that conveys meaning to consumers (see Figure 8.4).

These “secondary” brand associations can link to sources such as the company itself, countries or other geographical regions, and channels of distribution as well as to other brands, characters (through licens ing), spokespeople (through endorsements), sporting or cultural events (through sponsorship), or other third-party sources (through awards or reviews). Leveraging secondary associations can be an efficient and effective way to strengthen a brand.

But linking a brand to someone or something else can be risky because anything bad that happens to that other entity (such as scandal involving an endorser) can also be linked to the brand.

Example: Uber scandal